[71] The storm destroyed 80 mobile homes and severely damaged 400 others. It It is the most destructive hurricane to ever hit Florida in terms of structures damaged or destroyed, and was the costliest in financial terms until Hurricane Irma surpassed it 25 years later. Strong winds damaged billboards, awnings, commercial signs, several boats, planes, trees,[30] and 1,500 homes, with 300 of those becoming uninhabitable. [33] Gambling ships were moved into harbors and inland canals. [2] However, a 2004 paper by Christopher Landsea and others concluded that Andrew became a Category 5 hurricane near the Bahamas on August 23 and reached maximum sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h). Aren't big tropical cyclones also intense tropical cyclones? Hurricane Andrew was a Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that struck the Bahamas and Florida in August 1992. [32], In Louisiana, Governor Edwin Edwards declared a state of emergency. At the National Hurricane Center building in Coral Gables, sustained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) and gusts to 164 mph (264 km/h) were measured before the anemometer failed. [7] This underestimated both the strength and the speed of the storm, which would eventually make landfall in South Florida. At the time, Hurricane Andrew was the most expensive Atlantic hurricane in U.S. history (later surpassed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005). [2] In the forecast issued six hours after becoming a hurricane, the cyclone was predicted to make landfall near Jupiter, Florida, with winds of 105 mph (170 km/h) on August 25. An indirect death is defined as a fatality that can be linked to the hurricane, but not caused by its direct effects. For God's sake, where are they?" [43] Andrew was the costliest hurricane in U.S. history at the time, but is now seventh following hurricanes Katrina (2005), Ike (2008), Sandy (2012), Harvey (2017), Irma (2017), and Maria (2017). Hurricane Andrew formed from a tropical wave on August 16, 1992 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. After his visit to Louisiana, President Bush declared only Terrebonne Parish as a disaster area,[76] but later included 34 other parishes under this declaration. [114] By 2001, 230,710 people had moved from Dade County to Broward County, while 29,125 Dade County residents had moved to Palm Beach County. The hurricane caused the deaths of 17 people in the state, 6 of whom drowned offshore. [48], Andrew produced several tornadoes in the area. The commission study indicated that building codes and regulations were developed, amended, and administered by over 400 local jurisdictions and state agencies. [80] Overall, Hurricane Andrew caused about $500 million in damage to oil facilities. Property damage alone in St. Mary Parish reached approximately $150 million. Even a month prior to Andrew, the House Committee on Appropriations – which oversees the budget for FEMA – released a report calling the agency a "political dumping ground" and a "turkey farm" due to its "weak, inexperienced leaders". The highest sustained wind speed observed was 96 mph (154 km/h), while a wind gust as strong as 120 mph (190 km/h) was recorded; both measurements were taken at the fire station in Berwick. [137], Hurricane Andrew at peak intensity near the. [124] In Homestead, for example, the Latino population increased from 30% to 45% between 1990 and 2000. [37] The city later decided against ordering an evacuation. Two schools collectively sheltering about 3,600 people in Jeanerette and New Iberia lost their roofs. The Red Cross assisted with opening a shelter at the University of Southwest Louisiana's Cajundome in Lafayette, equipped to handle about 2,000 people. [31] About 1.25 million people evacuated from the central and southeast Louisiana,[2] while approximately 60,000 others fled parishes in southwest Louisiana. Eventually, the plywood and the trusses suffered structural failure, leading to roof collapses. All watches and warnings on the Gulf Coast were discontinued late on August 26 after the hurricane moved inland over Louisiana. [33] Three damaging tornadoes occurred in the state. The most damaging tornado was spawned in Elmore County and moved from an area northeast of Montgomery to the south of Wetumpka and briefly lifted during its 0.5 mi (0.80 km) track. The hurricane inflicted around $25 billion in losses to the United States. Winds were generally light in the state, reaching 30 mph (48 km/h) in Port Arthur. It was reported that the … When Hurricane Andrew roared across South Florida 20 years ago this August, it flattened homes, uprooted trees and destroyed suburban blocks for miles around. Prior to making landfall in Louisiana on August 26, Andrew caused extensive damage to oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, leading to $500 million in losses for oil companies. [102] The Government of Canada dispatched a team 90 military engineers to repair community centers, hospitals, and schools. [47][nb 4], Overall, Andrew caused about $25.3 billion in damage in Florida,[2] making it the costliest hurricane to hit the state at the time. Aren't big tropical cyclones also intense tropical cyclones? After turning northwestward and weakening further, Andrew moved ashore near Morgan City, Louisiana, as a low-end Category 3 storm. [92], The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was criticized for its slow response in both Florida and Louisiana. In Carroll County, several dwellings and barns were damaged, with one mobile home destroyed. A day like no other, Aug. 24, 1992, was the day Hurricane Andrew wreaked havoc on southern Florida, leaving entire trailer parks flattened and rows of concrete power poles toppled. At the Columbus Metropolitan Airport, buildings, billboards, and signs were damaged. After the tiles or shingles were peeled off, the plywood and prefabricated trusses were exposed to the weather. [89] Instead of raising taxes, Chiles signed a bill into law on December 17 that created a three-year reserve fund for losses to uninsured businesses and homes, as well as government and school buildings and functions. Passing directly through the city of Homestead in Dade County (now known as Miami-Dade County), Andrew stripped many homes of all but their concrete foundations. [125] The county had a net loss of about 36,000 people in 1992, while Broward and Palm Beach counties gained about 17,000 and 2,300 Dade County residents, respectively. One tornado in Kemper County destroyed a mobile home, while another twister in Lauderdale County demolished a mobile home, damaged five other dwellings, and injured four people. In real time, the National Hurricane Center assessed its peak intensity as 150 mph (240 km/h),[18] which was upgraded to 155 mph (250 km/h) in a post-storm analysis after the season ended. A total of 407 residences were demolished, 2,528 others were extensively damaged, and 3,526 others were inflicted with minor damage. It was the strongest landfalling hurricane in decades and the costliest hurricane to make landfall anywhere in the United States, until it was surpassed by Katrina in 2005. [106], In the aftermath of the storm, extensive psychological effects were documented. Hurricane Andrew was not the deadliest tropical cyclone to strike the U.S. mainland, but the compact, fast-moving storm remains one of the strongest and costliest on record. Additionally, 75% of voters in Dade County and 82% of Floridians overall stated that the president's actions in response to Andrew would not impact their vote in November. Hurricane Andrew poses a daunting test for the agency that coordinates Federal disaster relief programs, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which was … [2][56] At the height of the storm, more than 1.4 million people lost electricity and another 150,000 were without telephone service. Throughout the basin and Bayou Lafourche, 187 million freshwater fish were killed in the hurricane. The wave moved westward at about 20 kt, steered by Overall, losses in the state of Louisiana reached approximately $1.56 billion. [28] Many colleges and universities in southeast Florida also closed. On March 5, 1994, the base reopened as Homestead Air Reserve Base. A survey by Tim Marshall and Richard Herzog of the Haag Engineer Company in Carrollton, Texas, highlighted several construction issues. [108] A panel of psychiatrists and psychologists at the University of Miami agreed that as many as 90% of residents in the worst impacted areas would experience at least a few symptoms of PTSD. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Michael", "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)", "Continental United States Hurricanes (Detailed Description)", "The extratropical transitions of eastern Pacific Hurricane Lester (1992) and Atlantic Hurricane Andrew (1992)", "Andrew heads through Bahamas toward Miami", Hurricane Andrew special advisory number twenty-seven, Hurricane Andrew advisory number thirty-one, "Keys are islands in every sense after Andrew", Final Storm Report ... Hurricane Andrew ... correction for date, "Mayors of N.O., Grand Isle call for preparedness", Costliest U.S. tropical cyclones tables update, "Chapter 29. They were upgraded to hurricane warnings later that day, and on August 23, additional warnings were issued for the central Bahamas, including Cat Island, Exuma, San Salvador Island, and Long Island, Bahamas. Unsalvageable buildings were demolished. [2] In Everglades National Park and Biscayne National Park, more than 25% of trees were damaged or destroyed, including one-fourth of the royal palms and one-third of the pine trees in the former. [113] The city of Homestead spent about $6 million on rebuilding the Homestead Sports Complex. [2] Offshore, a group of six fishermen from Alabama drowned. [105] The hurricane also impacted Governor Chiles politically. [75] Houses in Berwick, Morgan City, and Patterson suffered major damage. [73] Before making landfall, Andrew spawned an F3 tornado in LaPlace, which killed two people and injured 32. [15], Although effects from Andrew were catastrophic, the extent of damage was limited mainly from Kendall to Key Largo due to the small wind field of the storm. Overall, the parish suffered $125 million in property damage, while an additional $200 million in damage was inflicted on sugar crops. [19], Initially, forecasters predicted tides up to 14 ft (4.3 m) above normal along the east coast of Florida, near the potential location of landfall. It is the most destructive hurricane to ever hit Florida in terms of structures damaged or destroyed, and was the costliest in financial terms until Hurricane Irma surpassed it 25 years later. [8], Bahamas Prime Minister Hubert Ingraham, who took office while the storm was active, urged residents to "take this hurricane seriously". [36] Nine shelters were opened in the city, which were occupied by thousands of people. After the initial hurricane watch from Mobile, Alabama, to Sabine Pass, Texas, the watches and warnings were expanded to eventually include areas from Mobile, Alabama, to Freeport, Texas. [135] About 1,300 National Guardsmen were deployed to southern Louisiana. [19] Before the hurricane passed through the Bahamas, forecasters predicted a storm surge of up to 18 ft (5.5 m), as well as up to 8 in (200 mm) of rain. 1992年のハリケーンシーズンの中で最初に命名されたハリケーンでもある 。. Berwick High School, sheltering about 2,000 people, was deroofed during the storm. With a barometric pressure of 922 mbar (27.23 inHg) at the time of landfall in Florida, Andrew is the sixth most-intense hurricane to strike the United States. [2] Advance warning was credited for the low death toll in the country. [29] Major airports such as the Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood,[29] Key West,[30] Miami,[19] and Palm Beach international airports closed. Additionally, looting occurred in neighborhoods severely affected by the storm, even in homes where few possessions remained. [82] Structural damage was generally minimal, occurring from the tornadoes and severe thunderstorms. Damage was heaviest in St. Mary Parish, about 32 mi (51 km) east of where Andrew made landfall. [2][73] The tornado was on the ground for about 10 minutes, during which it damaged or destroyed 163 structures, leaving 60 families homeless. [2], Governor Lawton Chiles declared a state of emergency and activated about one-third of the Florida National Guard. Hurricane Andrew was a destructive tropical cyclone during the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season that was, at the time, the costliest hurricane in United States history. These centers allowed residents to submit applications for aid. [2], By early August 18, the storm maintained convection near the center with spiral bands to its west as the winds increased to 50 mph (80 km/h). In addition, Andrew is on… Many residents evacuated, most voluntarily, from Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Lee, Martin, Dade, Monroe, Palm Beach, and Sarasota counties. The oil industry lost about $12 million per day in the days following Andrew and $4 million daily by three weeks later. Then Andrew arrived, the most expensive natural disaster in … [2], At 08:30 UTC on August 26, the cyclone made landfall about 20 mi (30 km) west-southwest of Morgan City, Louisiana, with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). 上陸時にも「カテゴリー5」に分類される強い勢力を誇った 。. [127], During the storm, a facility housing Burmese pythons was destroyed, allowing many of them to escape into the Everglades. [99][100] In order to provide temporary housing for the homeless, military personnel initially set up a total of five tent cities in Florida City and Homestead,[101] while a sixth tent city was opened at the Miccosukee Indian Reservation shortly after Labor Day weekend. [35] In New Orleans, Mayor Sidney Barthelemy ordered the evacuation of about 200,000 residents in the low-lying areas of the city. Hurricane Andrew was a category 5 hurricane that occurred during the 1992 Atlantic Hurricane Season. In total, Hurricane Andrew killed 65 people and caused $26.5 billion (1992 USD) in damage, making it the second costliest hurricane in U.S. history only after Hurricane Katrina (2005). [2], Elsewhere, effects were relatively minimal, except in Broward, Monroe, and Collier counties. The state National Guard also dispatched water purification units and tanks with filled potable water. A sampling of 378 adolescents by the University of South Carolina's Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics indicated that 3% of males and 9% of females met the criteria for PTSD. Due to rapid reproduction and ability to prey on many species,[128] the population of Burmese pythons exploded, with possibly as many as 300,000 in the Everglades alone. The remnants of Andrew also spawned several tornadoes in Maryland. [72] Property damage in the county reached about $30 million. Several hours later, the hurricane emerged over the Gulf of Mexico at Category 4 strength, with the Gulf Coast of the United States in its dangerous path. A report by the Florida Legislature in 2006 after hurricanes Dennis, Katrina, and Wilma in 2005 came to a similar conclusion, indicating that "they added further evidence that the Florida Building Code is working. [2] The storm's remnants continued moving towards the northeast, fully merging with the remnants of Hurricane Lester and the frontal zone over the Mid-Atlantic, in Pennsylvania, on August 29. [2] Of the 44 deaths attributed to the storm, 15 were direct fatalities, while 29 were indirectly caused by the storm. The hurricane made landfall near Homestead in the early morning hours of Aug. 24, 1992. "[122], The hurricane also transformed the demographics of Dade County. [2], After hitting Florida, Andrew moved across the Gulf of Mexico and made landfall about 23 mi (37 km) west-southwest of Morgan City in south-central Louisiana; at landfall, the maximum sustained winds were 115 mph (185 km/h). [86][87], Initially, the Bahamas National Disaster Coordinator believed that foreign aid was not required, but shortly after the storm, the Government of the United Kingdom began distributing blankets, food, ice, and water. Throughout the areas affected, almost 177,000 people were left homeless. [21][48] In addition, assistance came from Canada, Japan, and the United States, as well as the United Nations. About 800 houses were destroyed in the archipelago, and there was substantial damage to the transport, water, sanitation, agriculture, and fishing sectors. [73] Collectively, 14 tornadoes were reported in the parishes of Ascension, Iberville, Pointe Coupee, and Avoyelles, as well as in Baton Rouge. [112][113] After its reopening, Major Bobby D'Angelo expected the base to annually contribute less than half of that – between $180 million and $200 million. Hurricane Andrew reviews the environmental conditions that conspire to cause a hurricane, the special mix of weather patterns that caused Hurricane Andrew to grow with such force in August 1992, and the cost of the disaster in In addition, Andrew is one of only four hurricanes to make landfall in the United States as a Category 5, alongside the 1935 Labor Day hurricane, 1969's Camille, and 2018's Michael. A migration of mostly White families northward to Broward and Palm Beach County was ongoing, but accelerated after Andrew. [67] The county suffered the vast majority of the damage from the hurricane, totaling approximately $25 billion. Was substantial, peaking at 11.02 in ( 360 mm ) in Port Arthur falling to tropical depression status on! Which killed two people and injured 32 Discussion Thirteen, a group of six from. 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